No one may be deprived of his/her liberty except by warrant from a competent authority, issued in accordance with legal formalities, and for reasons previously defined by law. Those executing said order are obliged to give a copy thereof to the person concerned, if he/she requests it.
Every person may travel freely throughout the National territory and change domicile, or residence, without restrictions, other than those which the transit, fiscal, health, and immigration laws or regulations may prescribe.
Every person is free to exercise any profession or trade, subject to regulations established by law with respect to competence, morality, social welfare and security, professional affiliation, public health, unionization, and compulsory dues.
No taxes or assessments for the exercise of liberal professions, trades, and arts shall be established.
Work is a right and duty of the individual and accordingly the State is obliged to devise economic policies to promote full employment, and to ensure to every workman the necessary conditions for a decent existence.
Every workman in the service of the State, of public or private enterprises or private persons, is guaranteed a minimum wage or salary. Workers of enterprises specified by law shall share in the profits thereof in accordance with the economic conditions of the country.
The maximum work day shall be eight hours, and the labor week up to forty eight hours. The maximum night work shall not be more than seven hours. Overtime shall be paid with surcharge.
The maximum work day may be reduced to six hours per day for those over fourteen and under eighteen. Employment of children under 14, and night work of those under 16, is unlawful, save for the exceptions established by law. Likewise, it is unlawful to employ children under 14 as domestic servants, and to employ children and women in unhealthy occupations.
In addition to a weekly day of rest, all workers shall be entitled to paid vacations.
The weekly day of rest with pay may be established by Law in accordance with social and economic conditions of the country, and for the benefit of workers.Panama Constitution
Any person who unlawfully deprives another of his liberty shall be punished with one to three years of imprisonment or its equivalent in daily fines or weekend arrest. If the imprisonment was ordered or performed by a public servant Abuse their duties, the penalty is two to four years in prison.
Whoever acting or intending to act as an employer, manager, supervitor, contractor, employment agent or client applicant obtains, destroys, conceals, withdraws, holds or possesses a passport or other public document of identification, whether real or falsified, belonging to the Person contracted to render a service, shall be punished with imprisonment of three to five years.
A non-profit person who abducts a minor or an incapable of the power of his parents, guardian or person in charge of their care, upbringing or care, or who improperly retains or withdraws from the country without the authorization of whoever has the homeland Power or the care of this will be punished with imprisonment of three to six years.
For the purposes of the previous article, the following conduct constitutes maltreatment to a minor:
1. Causing, allowing or causing physical, mental or emotional harm, including physical injury caused by corporal punishment.
2. Use or induce him to be used in begging or propaganda or advertising not appropriate for his age.
3. Use it or allow it to be used in work prohibited or endangering his life or health.
4. Give you careless treatment.
Anyone who delivers a child or an unlawful means to a person who is not his or her parent or who is not authorized to receive it shall be sentenced to three to six years in prison.
Whoever sells, offers, transfers, or accepts a child or girl in exchange for remuneration, payment or reward shall be punished by imprisonment for five to ten years.
The same penalty shall apply to anyone who offers, possesses, consents, acquires or induces the sale of a child, child or adolescent for purposes of illegitimate adoption, in violation of the legal instruments applicable to adoption. When the sale, offer, transfer, or acceptance of a child or adolescent is intended for sexual exploitation, extraction of organs, forced labor or servitude, the penalty shall be increased from one-third to one-half of the maximum .
Whoever removes, transfers, retains, or attempts to engage in such conduct in a minor with unlawful means, such as kidnapping, fraudulent or forced consent, delivery or receipt of illicit payments or benefits, in order to obtain parental consent , The persons or institution in charge of the minor, shall be punished with eight to ten years' imprisonment.
Who generalizes and systematically against a civilian population or knows the following facts and does not prevent them, having the means to do so, will be punished with imprisonment of twenty to thirty years, when the following conduct is caused:
5. Serious deprivation of physical liberty in violation of the fundamental guarantees or norms of international law.
7. Sexual violence, sexual slavery, forced prostitution, forced or compulsory Sterilization not consented.
Whoever directs or forms part of an international organization dedicated to trafficking in persons shall be punished with imprisonment of ten to fifteen years.
The same sanction shall be imposed on anyone who intervenes in any way in the traffic of persons, with the consent of these, avoiding or fraudulently evading, in some way, the migration controls established in the continental territory of the Republic.
Whoever promotes, directs, organizes, finances, advertises, invites or manages by any means of mass or individual communication or otherwise facilitates the entry or exit of the country or the movement within the national territory of a person Of any sex, to perform one or more acts of prostitution or to subject them to exploitation, sexual or labor bondage, slavery or practices similar to slavery, forced labor or services, servile marriage, begging, unlawful extraction of organs or irregular adoption shall be sanctioned With imprisonment of fifteen to twenty years.
The penalty will be twenty to thirty years imprisonment, when:
1. The victim is a person under age or is in a situation of vulnerability or disability or unable to consent.
2. The victim is used in acts of exhibitionism through photographic means, camcorders or obscene recordings.
3. The act is executed through deceit, coercion, violence, threat, fraud, abduction or retention of passports, migratory documents or personal identification.
4. The act is committed by a close relative, guardian or whoever is in charge of the custody, upbringing, education or instruction of the victim.
5. The fact is committed by a public servant.
Whoever, knowingly, destines a movable or immovable property to the commission of the crime described in the previous article will be sanctioned with imprisonment of six to eight years. When the owner, landlord, Holder or administrator of an establishment or commercial premises intended for the public to use or permit to be used for the commission of said crime, shall be punished by eight to twelve years in prison.
Whoever possesses, transports, stores, receives, delivers, sells, buys or transports in any way, in an unlawful manner, human organs, tissues or fluids, shall be punished with imprisonment of ten to twelve years.
Whoever subjects or maintains persons of any sex to perform work or services under force, deceit, coercion or threat shall be punished with imprisonment for six to ten years. The penalty of imprisonment will be from ten to fifteen years if the victim is a person under age or is in a situation of vulnerability or disability.Panama Trafficking in Persons Law
Work is prohibited:
1. Of the minors who have not reached the age of fourteen.
2. Children under fifteen years of age who have not completed primary education.